Ethereum’s Pectra Upgrade: All You Need To Know

Ethereum’s Pectra Upgrade: All You Need To Know

Ethereum is getting ready for another significant update. The Prague-Electra (Pectra) upgrade is scheduled to improve the network’s consensus and execution layers. The plan is to launch it in the first quarter of 2025.

The Path to Pectra

Ethereum has been on a continuous journey of upgrades since its inception. Following its switch to a proof-of-stake (PoS) mechanism in September 2022, the Ethereum network has witnessed multiple enhancements regarding scale, security, and user experience.

The most recent significant upgrade before Pectra was Dencun, which occurred in March 2024. Dencun, a combination of the Deneb and Cancun upgrades, aimed to lower transaction fees for layer-2 solutions and improve overall scalability.

What is the Pectra Upgrade?

Prague and Electra are two distinct upgrades combined in the Pectra upgrade. While the Electra upgrade targets the consensus layer, the Prague upgrade concentrates on modifications to the execution layer.

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The Prague Upgrade

The Prague update introduces significant changes to the execution level. Among the primary suggestions is Ethereum Improvement Proposal (EIP) 3074. It aims to enable users to batch their transactions and sign them off in one step.

The Prague upgrade also enhances the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM). The EVM Object Format (EOF) will increase developer experience and strengthen smart contract security. Hence, developers will find building on Ethereum simpler and safer.

Peer Data Availability Sampling (PeerDAS) is another crucial Prague upgrade component. Its objective is to scale rollups by using transaction data storage. PeerDAS extends the idea of “blobs,” first presented in the Dencun upgrade. Blobs increase block space and lower transaction costs by optimizing data storage in Ethereum layer-2 systems.

The Electra Upgrade

The Electra update concentrates on the layer of consensus. EIP-7251 is one of the main modifications in this update, raising the staking limit for validators. Currently, 32 Ether (ETH) is the validators’ most effective balance.

However, the maximum effective balance suggested by EIP-7251 is 2,048 ETH. Staking providers can lower the network’s load and increase efficiency by aggregating their holdings into fewer validators.

Another inclusion in the Electra update is EIP-7702, a new transaction suggested by Ethereum co-founder Vitalik Buterin and other developers. This proposal seeks to improve account abstraction compatibility to enhance user experience. A fix for EIP-2935 is also under consideration for better handling of historical block hashes.

Anticipated Advantages of the Pectra Upgrade

The Ethereum network gains multiple advantages from the Pectra upgrade.

Improved Staking Efficiency

Raising the staking limit allows validators to consolidate their stakes into fewer nodes. This change reduces the load on the network’s communication layer, making it more efficient. Fewer messages between validators mean less congestion and improved performance. This improvement is crucial as Ethereum grows and more users and developers utilize the network.

Enhanced Data Storage and Scalability

PeerDAS and blob-carrying transactions will optimize data storage and increase block space. Blobs, introduced in the Dencun upgrade, allow additional data to be stored off-chain, reducing the burden on the main Ethereum chain.

Better User and Developer Experience

Proposals like EIP-3074 and EIP-7702 aim to simplify transaction processes and improve wallet functionalities. For developers, improvements like EOF provide better tools for building secure and efficient smart contracts. A better developer experience attracts more talent to the Ethereum ecosystem, fostering innovation and growth.

Roadmap Following Pectra

Another change to be included in the Pectra upgrade is adding Verkle trees. Verkle trees are a new type of data structure that promises to reduce proof sizes and lower node hardware requirements. This development is part of the broader “Verge” stage in Ethereum’s post-merge roadmap.

According to Vitalik Buterin, Verkle trees allow staking nodes to run with minimal hard disk space and sync instantly.


By enhancing the execution and consensus layers, the Pectra upgrade improves the overall functionality, efficiency, and user experience of the Ethereum blockchain. With features like EIP-3074, EIP-7251, and PeerDAS, this upgrade will make Ethereum more efficient, scalable, and user-friendly.

With Verkle trees and other future updates, Ethereum will likely remain at the forefront of blockchain technology, providing a more efficient platform for developers and general users.

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Cecil Felix
About Author

Cecil Felix

Cecil Felix, a vanguard in crypto journalism, provides incisive perspectives on the digital currency frontier. With a talent for distilling complex blockchain phenomena into digestible insights, Cecil's articles are a touchstone for enthusiasts and experts. His depth and clarity solidify his reputation as a leading crypto commentator

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